Urban Geology


Cities are complex systems that exist at the interface of natural, built and social environments.  Geological and geotechnical information about the subsurface are of paramount importance and of high socio-economic value for the development of cities and the maintenance of critical infrastructure (e.g. transport tunnels, energy and water supply networks and foundations).  To achieve the vision of resilient cities, subsurface use must be planned, integrated and managed as part of the largely above-ground agendas. Urban geology is a geological science that comprises all topics related to the urban underground, such as hydrogeology, geochemistry, structural geology, engineering geology, geothermal energy, geohazards and geoheritage.

In EGS these topics are dealt with by the Urban Geology Expert Group.


Other Scientific Themes

Basic Geology

Multiscale space-related datasets and data products are the fundamental components of geological baseline information delivered by national geological survey organisations. These datasets and products show and explain the geological architecture of the surface and subsurface of the Earth’s crust.


EGDI contains data on different sets of boreholes. Currently a WMS services is available.

Earth Observations and Geohazards

The systematic observation of the Earth’s surface and the monitoring of ground deformation allows the precise mapping and assessment of geohazards. Geohazards can have severe impacts on human lives and properties and may lead to serious socio-economic consequences.


Chemical elements are the Earth’s building blocks. Geochemistry is the study of the distribution and concentration of Earth’s elements.


Energy is vital to the functioning of our society. We need energy to heat our homes, to produce food, for transport, and much more. But energy consumption poses two major challenges. First, our huge dependency on fossil fuels. Second, domestic energy production is decreasing.


Establishing the European Geological Surveys Research Area to deliver a Geological Service for Europe (GeoERA).


Earth’s geological processes are happening around us all the time. The results are often distinctive geological sites (geosites) that can be unique, visually appealing or have scientific value.


Geophysics studies the Earth's interior using physical properties measured at or above its surface and produces mathematical models to predict those properties.

Marine Geology

About two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered by water. In line with this, Europe’s seas total about fifteen million square kilometres, fifty percent more than its land area.

Mineral Resources

We live in a mineral-based world. It has been said that “if you can’t grow it, you have to mine it”. Indeed, virtually everything we use on a daily basis is manufactured from the Earth’s mineral resources. Mineral raw materials provide us with our basic needs – energy, infrastructure, transportation, technology and more.

Water Resources

Groundwater, present almost every where beneath our feet, is by far (99%) the largest freshwater resource on earth. As rain falls, it recharge and continuously feeds, rivers, lakes, wetlands and coastal waters.